Microregionalism and World Order
The permeability of borders, highlighted in the mobility of capital, industry, information, and people, made scholars and policymakers even question their relevance in economic terms within this new world order Ohmae, The proliferation of theories and approaches ranged from varieties of mainstream i. Such a proficient theoretical production was key for a more detailed analysis on border.
Although not yet linking directly regionalism and border, new regionalism theories became aware of the globalization effects on macro and microlevels of social reality, and as levels of analysis as well as the empirical connections that macro-regions and microregions shared. Regional space and scales of regionalism were then at the core of such a discussion. With such levels already recognized as relevant analytical elements, De Lombaerde developed a proposition to link the academic communities that tend to focus on macro or microregions, thus suggesting new research paths and a clearer understanding of global relations.
The World Order Approach analyses inspired on Coxian thought by Gamble and Payne , Hook and Kearns , and Breslin and Hook acknowledged the existence of regions of center and periphery, and problematized microregions as well as their borderlines. Borders were being used to assure the inclusion of certain microregions in the global economic system by becoming the focus of a productive restructuration of the world. What these theories identified was the filtering character of borders — opened to capital, products, and information; closed for individuals of peripheral regions.
Not only understood as a point of shock and a boundary, but as an area of transition between subnational dynamics Leloup and Stoffel, , the global insertion of borders accentuated their function as a multidimensional articulation structure. The relationship between new regionalism and borders, in theory and in practice, is that of partial opposition.
On the one hand, the impetus of global izing flows ran against the continuance of borders to the extent numerous scholars predicted their extinction. On the other hand, borders were key factors for the exploitation of relative positioning of certain territories within the expanding transnational system.
The main progress of this wave can be identified as the acknowledgement of borders and border regions as germane categories for regionalism theorization as well as in the empirical advance of regionalist dynamics. The persistence in relegating border as a significant concept to other academic communities than regionalism scholars e. Globalization became unescapable as well as the advent of numerous actors and phenomena of global scale. The list goes on. The centrality of regions in offering solutions to the contradictions of this century's global relations — inter nationalism and globalism, states and markets, security and insecurity — is the core of comparative regionalism theory Katzenstein, The progressive integration among European Union EU members and its enlargement toward the East in the early s Moravcsik and Vachudova, , the Latin American search for regional autonomy in a post-hegemonic world order and the strengthening of South American institutions for dealing with matters of regional politics Riggirozzi and Tussie, , and the creation of multiple forms of interregionalism Baert et al.
The fact is, mainstream theories of previous waves now share room with novel understandings of regionalist dynamics, designed to cope with the rapid changes in global relations, as traditional views did not manage to explain them. The multiple forms of region established in this wave has allowed the comparison between organizations, informal regions, subregions, subnational regions, states, etc. Borders, now studied in most diversified ways, have slowly made their route into comparative regionalism theories.
They have started to be scrutinized as microprocesses, informal regionalization dynamics, or simply as relevant social processes of regionalism. Perhaps the main advance has been to identify border in its region-building capacities within a multilevel governance environment. Nevertheless, borders persist as a factor yet to be explored in comparative studies of regionalism, particularly in macro-analysis. Global occurrences of the last decade were yet to intricate the already complex interconnected global system in which regions are trans formed. As highlighted by Scott , p. The increase of border securitization and control and in some cases militarization by the state has been one of the biggest challenges of regionalism.
It can be considered a state response to such a chaotic and crisis-plentiful phase. Dupeyron reminds that the refugees and migration flows into the EU have split the European border policies with the restoration of control points and routines, as well as the referendum that confirmed the United Kingdom UK exit of the EU has rebuilt British borders to European citizens.
Concerning USA-Mexico borders, the boosting economic and cultural region they form has not been enough to prevent USA to invest in further control mechanisms, regardless of constructing new walls. Evidence shows that the actions of players not concerned with regional policies or acting without regionalist objectives can affect how a regional organization will close or open their borders. It can also influence how states react within a regional organization.
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The list of examples could go on and on. Understanding regionalism as a mid-level alternative thus does not suffice for acknowledging the influencing factors on regionalist phenomena and the relationship between regions and borders. Quite the opposite. Recognizing that the world is organized in tangled webs of networks that cut through and across all geographical levels Dicken, allows us to identify regionalism and border as spatial components through which actors interact in a much more complex, multilayered, interconnected system of manifold networks.
It joins together regionalism and borders as integral parts of a single complex macrosystem. The notions of border have changed along with the theoretical accounts on regionalism. Therefore, old regionalism replicated the notions of border originated in the studies on state and interstate relations; on the other hand, new regionalism developed a double notion of border, as an articulative component able to filter flows exchanges — opened to some but closed to others.
One substantial difference is the acknowledgement of borders and regions as responses to the increasing globalization in the latter, while in the former the international system served as mold to comprehend both regions and borders. The wave of comparative regionalism is unlike both previous phases to the extent that it is witnessing the strengthening of apparently contradictory processes: sub, inter, and intra regional movements, organizations, competitions, and agreements — in macro or micro-realities, from local to transnational levels — are still gaining ground within global relations; the re-emergence of border barriers and nationalisms — also within regional organizations, but not exclusively; and the rise of many global issues and the following demand for a global governance.
These processes actuate the formation of cross border-regions, concomitantly opened and closed, local and global, national and regional. Thus, we identify that the wave of comparative regionalism has been emphasizing the so-called multilayered interconnections of borders into the tangled webs of global networks. This means that it will be conceivably much more complicated to understand and predict the roles of border and of regions, for that matter by applying a regional, analytical framework that does not include a globalist perspective of such dynamics.
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See Albert, Jacobson and Lapid for more details. Comparative regionalism: a field whose time has come? The International Spectator, v.
Identities, borders, orders: rethinking international relations theory. Minneapolis: University of Minessota Press, The theory and reality of the European Coal and Steel Community. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University, Transnational diffusion or different models? Regional approaches to migration governance in the European Union and Mercosur.
European Journal of Migration and Law, v. Asean and the industrialization of East Asia.
Current Research Interests
Intersecting interregionalism: regions, global governance and the EU. Microregionalism and world order. South Asia in the new world order: the role of regional cooperation.
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Oxon: Routledge, The politics of regional integration in Latin America: theoretical and comparative explorations. A note. Perspectives on Federalism , v. EE37, Introduction: reading the intellectual history of regionalism. London: Sage, The Latin American Integration Association. In: Marco Odello, and Francesco Seatzu eds. New York: T. Asser Press, Global shift: mapping the changing contours of the world economy. New York: The Guildford Press, Online Chinese nationalism and China's bilateral relations 12 editions published in in English and held by 1, WorldCat member libraries worldwide Since the Chinese were officially plugged into the virtual community in , the usage of the internet in the country has developed at an incredible rate.
By the end of , there were approximately million netizens in China, a number which surpasses that of the U. The rapid development of the online Chinese community has not only boosted the information flow among citizens across the territory, but has also created a new form of social interaction between the state, the media, various professionals and intellectuals, as well as China's or.
China and the global political economy by Shaun Breslin Book 36 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide "In a relatively short period, the growth of investment to China and the resulting increase in Chinese trade has resulted in a reconfiguration of the East Asian regional economy, and is now altering financial and resource flows across the globe.
This book explains how this transformation has come about, focusing on the interplay between domestic politics in China and the transition from socialism on one hand, and the ongoing evolution of global or transnational production networks on the other. Comparative government and politics : an introduction by Rod Hague Book 39 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide "This fourth edition of Comparative Government and Politics has been comprehensively revised and rewritten throughout to cover the major changes since the collapse of communism and the end of the Cold War.
New chapters have been added on the global context, democracy and democratization, federal, unitary and local politics, and the comparative method. The book remains, however, as resolutely international in scope as ever, with chapters organized thematically rather than country by country. Mao by Shaun Breslin Book 14 editions published between and in English and Vietnamese and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Examines Mao as a revolutionary general and founder of the leader of the world's largest nation.
Explores Mao's career as an astute and often brutal political manipulator.
Looks at how Mao became a victim of his own obsession with power. Shaun Breslin explores the career of Mao Zedung from a number of angles, as revolutionary general, as founder and leader of the world's largest nation for almost thirty convulsive years, as ideologist, as astute and often brutal political manipulator and ultimately as a victim of his own obsession with power.
There are two stories here, how Mao established a communist party state in mainland China and what he accomplished as its leader. The triumph of was won after a quarter-century of epic struggle. Not only did Mao and the Communists withstand the attacks of the ruling nationalists party and Japanese invasion in , But Mao also had to wage his own battle within the movement against those who looked to Moscow to show the way forward.
World Order by Henry Kissinger – review
To survive such circumstances was achievement enough and Mao's overwhelming victory helps us understand his subsequent status in the China he created. But after establishing a new regime, Mao embarked on a number of radical experiments to transform China and classless society.
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Even after failures, he was determined to ensure that his revolutionary radicalism would outlive him. Ironically, his extreme actions undermined it and Maosim, and Mao's China, died wit him in And, as the other titles in the "Profiles in Power" series, it is not a biography, though inevitably it contains much biographical material, it instead analyzes the major features, achievements and failures of Mao's career.
Microregionalism and world order by Shaun Breslin Book 16 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide The third in a series that began with Gamble and Payne's Regionalism and World Order and Hook and Kearns' Subregionalism and World Order , this text examines formal and informal regionalist politics within the context of the analyses presented in the first two volumes. Focusing on interaction and cooperation in political, economic, and security relationships, the ten papers presented by Breslin politics, U.
Annotation c Book News, Inc. China in the s : centre-province relations in a reforming socialist state by Shaun Breslin Book 10 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide When the post-Mao leadership initiated economic reform in , they set in motion a process which resulted in a fundamental redistribution of power within the Chinese party-state. Reducing central administrative economic control was a key component of the reform process.
The book also enables us to assess Kissinger's own era in government in historical perspective. Few would now dispute the wisdom of ending China's isolation from the "family of nations". There were of course darker aspects of that era, including the bombing of North Vietnamese strongholds in Cambodia that worsened a domestic crisis and allowed the murderous Khmer Rouge to come to power, and the overthrow of the Allende government in Chile. In contrast, it was the Nixon and Ford administrations that negotiated the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks talks in that reduced nuclear tensions in Europe.
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